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Cocaine produced in Colombia and Bolivia increasingly

According to the United Nations, there was an increase of cocaine trafficking through Venezuela since 2002.[28] In 2005 Venezuela severed ties with the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), accusing its representatives of spying.[29] Following the departure of the DEA from Venezuela and the expansion of DEA’s partnership with Colombia in 2005, Venezuela became more attractive to drug traffickers.[30] Between 2008 and 2012, Venezuela’s cocaine seizure ranking among other countries declined, going from being ranked fourth in the world for cocaine seizures in 2008[31] to sixth in the world in 2012.[32]

On 18 November 2016, following what was known as the Narcosobrinos incident, Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro’s two nephews were found guilty of trying to ship drugs into the United States so they could “obtain a large amount of cash to help their family stay in power”.[33]
Illegal cocaine trade via West Africa

Cocaine produced in Colombia and Bolivia increasingly has been shipped via West Africa (especially in Cape Verde, Mali, Benin, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Guinea-Bissau and Ghana).[34] The money is often laundered in countries such as Nigeria, Ghana and Senegal.

Cargo planes are now also used for transport from the production countries to West Africa. Before this, cocaine was only shipped to the US.[clarification needed] Because the market became saturated there, illicit drug traders decided to increase shipping to Europe. When these new drug routes were uncovered by authorities, West Africa was chosen as a stop-over. In 2005, police[where?] intercepted a major cocaine shipment for the first time.

 

Effects of the illegal drug trade on societies

Drug smuggling carries severe penalties in many countries. Sentencing may include lengthy periods of incarceration, flogging and even the death penalty (in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and elsewhere). In December 2005, Van Tuong Nguyen, a 25-year-old Australian drug smuggler, was hanged in Singapore after being convicted in March 2004.[13] In 2010, two people were sentenced to death in Malaysia for trafficking 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of cannabis into the country.[14] Execution is mostly used as a deterrent, and many have called upon much more effective measures to be taken by countries to tackle drug trafficking;[15] for example, targeting specific criminal organisations (which are often also active in the smuggling of other goods (i.e. wildlife) and even people[16][17] In some cases, even links between politicians and the criminal organisations have been proven to exist.[18]

The countries of drug production and transit are some of the most affected by the drug trade, though countries receiving the illegally imported substances are also adversely affected. For example, Ecuador has absorbed up to 300,000 refugees from Colombia who are running from guerrillas, paramilitaries and drug lords. While some applied for asylum, others are still illegal immigrants. The drugs that pass from Colombia through Ecuador to other parts of South America create economic and social problems.[19]

Honduras, through which an estimated 79% of cocaine passes on its way to the United States,[20] has the highest murder rate in the world.[21] According to the International Crisis Group, the most violent regions in Central America, particularly along the Guatemala–Honduras border, are highly correlated with an abundance of drug trafficking activity.
Violent crime
Jamaican drug lord Christopher Coke being escorted by DEA agents

In 1868, as a result of the increased use of opium

In 1868, as a result of the increased use of opium, the UK restricted the sale of opium in Britain by implementing the 1868 Pharmacy Act.[7] In the United States, control of opium was the responsibility of individual US states until the introduction of the Harrison Act in 1914, following the passing of the International Opium Convention in 1912.

Between 1920 and 1933, by Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, alcohol was banned in the United States. Prohibition proved to be almost impossible to enforce and resulted in the rise of organized crime, including the modern American Mafia which identified enormous business opportunities in the manufacturing, smuggling and sale of illicit liquor.[8][9]
The beginning of the 21st century saw a drug use increase in North America and Europe, with a particularly increased demand for marijuana and cocaine.[10][11] As a result, international organized crime syndicates such as the Sinaloa Cartel and ‘Ndrangheta have increased cooperation among each other in order to facilitate trans-Atlantic drug trafficking.[12] Another illicit drug with increased demand in Europe is hashish.
Legal penalties
See also: Capital punishment for drug trafficking

Drug trafficking is widely regarded by lawmakers as a serious offense around the world. Penalties often depend on the type of drug (and its classification in the country into which it is being trafficked), the quantity trafficked, where the drugs are sold and how they are distributed. If the drugs are sold to underage people, then the penalties for trafficking may be harsher than in other circumstances.

History of opium in China

The illegal drug trade is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws.

A UN report has stated that “the global drug trade generated an estimated US$321.6 billion in 2003.”[1] With a world GDP of US$36 trillion in the same year, the illegal drug trade may be estimated as nearly 1% of total global trade. Consumption of illegal drugs is widespread globally.
History
See also: History of opium in China

Chinese edicts against opium smoking were made in 1729, 1796 and 1800.[2] Addictive drugs were prohibited in the west in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[3][4][5]

In the early 19th century, an illegal drug trade in China emerged and as a result, by 1838 the number of Chinese opium addicts had grown to between four and twelve million.[6] The Chinese government responded by enforcing a ban on the import of opium that led to the First Opium War (1839-1842) between the United Kingdom and Qing dynasty China. The United Kingdom won and forced China to allow British merchants to trade opium. Trading in opium was lucrative, and smoking opium had become common in the 19th century, so British merchants increased trade with the Chinese. The Second Opium War broke out in 1856, with the British joined this time by the French. After the two opium wars, the British Crown, via the treaties of Nanking and Tianjin, the Chinese government was obliged to pay large sums of money for opium they had seized and destroyed, which were referred to as “reparations”.

Typical Aberdeen town street showing the massive use of neighborhood granite

When the terrazzo is thoroughly cured, helpers grind it with a terrazzo grinder, that’s relatively like a floor polisher, only a great deal heavier. Slight depressions left via the grinding are packed with a matching grout fabric and hand-troweled for a smooth, uniform surface; it’s far then wiped clean, polished, and sealed.[3]
• Quarrymen break up veins, or sheets of rock, and extract the ensuing blocks of stone from the floor.
• Sawyers reduce those tough blocks into cuboids, to required size with diamond-tipped saws. The ensuing block if ordered for a selected component is known as sawn six aspects (SSS).
• Banker masons are workshop-based totally, and concentrate on operating the stones into the shapes required through a building’s layout, this set out on templets and a mattress mildew. They can produce anything from stones with simple chamfers to tracery windows, unique mouldings and the more classical architectural building masonry. When running a stone from a sawn block, the mason guarantees that the stone is bedded inside the right way, so the completed work sits within the building in the equal orientation as it changed into formed on the floor. Occasionally though a few stones need to be orientated efficiently for the application; this consists of voussoirs, jambs, copings and cornices.
The basic equipment, techniques and abilties of the banker mason have existed as a trade for thousands of years.
• Carvers cross the road from craft to artwork, and use their creative capability to carve stone into foliage, figures, animals or summary designs.
• Fixer masons specialize inside the solving of stones onto buildings, the use of lifting tackle, and traditional lime mortars and grouts. Sometimes cutting-edge cements, mastics and epoxy resins are used, generally on specialist applications such as stone cladding. Metal fixings, from simple dowels and cramps to specialised single software fixings, also are used. The specific tolerances necessary make this a pretty professional task.
• Memorial masons or enormous masons carve gravestones and inscriptions.
The cutting-edge stonemason undergoes comprehensive schooling, each in the study room and within the working environment. Hands-on skill is complemented with the aid of intimate know-how of each stone type, its software and great makes use of, and how to paintings and attach each stone in vicinity. The mason can be professional and capable to carry out one or all of the numerous branches of stonemasonry. In a few regions the trend is towards specialization, in different regions toward adaptability.
Types of stone

Stonemasons use all varieties of herbal stone: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary; whilst some also use artificial stone as well.
• Igneous stones: Granite is one of the toughest stones, and requires such different strategies to sedimentary stones that it’s far actually a separate exchange. With exceptional patience, simple mouldings can and were carved into granite, as an example in lots of Cornish churches and the metropolis of Aberdeen. Generally, however, it’s miles used for purposes that require its strength and sturdiness, together with kerbstones, countertops, flooring, and breakwaters.

Metamorphic: Marble is a high-quality stone without problems possible

Igneous stone ranges from very tender rocks which includes pumice and scoria to truly tougher rocks which include tuff and difficult rocks along with granite and basalt.
• Metamorphic: Marble is a high-quality stone without problems possible, that comes in numerous colours, specially white. It has traditionally been used for carving statues, and for dealing with many Byzantine and Renaissance Italian buildings. The first and most admirable marble carvers and sculptors have been the Greeks, specifically Antenor (6th century BC), Phidias and Critias (fifth century BC), Praxiteles (4th century BC) and others who used particularly the marble of Paros and Thassos islands, the whitest and brightest of all, although now not the greatest, and also the Pentelikon marble. Their work changed into preceded by way of older sculptors from Mesopotamia and Egypt, however the Greeks had been unequalled in plasticity and sensible (re)presentation, either of Gods (Apollo, Aphrodite, Hermes, Zeus, etc.), or humans (Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Phryne, etc.). The famous Acropolis of Athens is said to be built using the Pentelicon marble. The traditional home of the marble enterprise is the region around Carrara in Italy, from where a bright and nice, whitish marble is extracted in huge quantities.
Slate is a popular choice of stone for memorials and inscriptions, as its fine grain and hardness method it leaves information very sharp. Meanwhile, its tendency to cut up into skinny plates has made it a popular roofing fabric.
• Sedimentary: Many of the sector’s most famous buildings were constructed of sedimentary stone, from Durham Cathedral to St Peter’s in Rome. There are two most important varieties of sedimentary stone used in masonry work, limestones and sandstones. Examples of limestones consist of Bath and Portland stone. Yorkstone and Sydney sandstone are famous sandstones.
Types of stonemasonry
Types of stonemasonry are:
Fixer Masons
This kind of masons have specialized into fixing the stones onto the homes. They may try this with grouts, mortars and lifting tackle. They may additionally use things like unmarried application specialised fixings, easy crimps, and dowels in addition to stone cladding with such things as epoxy resins, mastics and current cements.

These are the masons that make headstones and carve the inscriptions on them.

Stone veneer is used as a protecting and ornamental masking for interior or outdoors partitions and surfaces. The veneer is usually 1 inch (2.Fifty four cm) thick and should weigh much less than 15 lb in keeping with rectangular foot (73 kg m−2) in order that no additional structural helps are required. The structural wall is placed up first, and skinny, flat stones are mortared onto the face of the wall. Metal tabs within the structural wall are mortared among the stones to tie the whole lot together, to prevent the stonework from keeping apart from the wall.

The foreground device with serrated blades is a stonemason’s French drag, used on smooth limestone
Stonemasons use a huge kind of tools to handle and shape stone blocks (ashlar) and slabs into completed articles. The primary equipment for shaping the stone are a mallet, chisels, and a steel directly aspect. With these you’ll make a flat surface – the premise of all stonemasonry.
Chisels come in a ramification of dimensions and shapes, established upon the feature for which they’re being used and feature many special names relying on locality. There are one of a kind chisels for unique substances and sizes of fabric being labored, for doing away with huge amounts of material and for placing a excellent finish on the stone.
Mixing mortar is usually accomplished nowadays with mortar mixers which normally use a rotating drum or rotating paddles to combine the mortar.

Memorial Masons

Today’s stonemasons undergo education this is quite complete and is carried out each in the paintings surroundings and inside the classroom. It isn’t sufficient to have hands-on ability anymore. One have to also have information of the kinds of stones as well as its high-quality uses and a way to work it in addition to how to fix it in vicinity.[1]
Rubble Masonry
When kind of dressed stones are laid in a mortar the end result is a stone rubble masonry.
Ashlar Masonry
Stone masonry using dressed (cut) stones is known as ashlar masonry.
Stone Veneer

Places named after the stone include Marblehead

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (permissible exposure limit) for marble publicity in the place of job as 15 mg/m3 total publicity and five mg/m3 respiration exposure over an eight-hour workday. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of 10 mg/m3 general publicity and five mg/m3 respiration exposure over an eight-hour workday.[14]
Microbial degradation

The haloalkaliphilic methylotrophic bacterium Methylophaga murata became remoted from deteriorating marble in the Kremlin.[15] Bacterial and fungal degradation turned into detected in 4 samples of marble from Milan cathedral; black Cladosporium attacked dried acrylic resin[16] the usage of melanin.[17]
Cultural institutions
Jadwiga of Poland’s sarcophagus via Antoni Madeyski, Wawel Cathedral, Cracow
Relief on the Marble Door of the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul
As the favourite medium for Greek and Roman sculptors and architects (see classical sculpture), marble has come to be a cultural symbol of way of life and refined taste. Its extraordinarily various and colourful styles make it a favorite decorative material, and it’s miles often imitated in heritage patterns for laptop shows, etc.

Places named after the stone include Marblehead, Massachusetts; Marblehead, Ohio; Marble Arch, London; the Sea of Marmara; India’s Marble Rocks; and the cities of Marble, Minnesota; Marble, Colorado; Marble Falls, Texas, and Marble Hill, Manhattan, New York. The Elgin Marbles are marble sculptures from the Parthenon that are on show inside the British Museum. They have been introduced to Britain via the Earl of Elgin.
Artificial marble

Marble dirt is blended with cement or synthetic resins to make reconstituted or cultured marble. The look of marble can be simulated with faux marbling, a portray technique that imitates the stone’s coloration styles. Sculpture

Slipform Stonemasonry

History

A stonemason’s stone workbench from the 1845 Eglinton Tournament bridge creation
Stonemasonry is one of the earliest trades in civilization’s records. During the time of the Neolithic Revolution and domestication of animals, human beings found out the way to use fire to create quicklime, plasters, and mortars. They used these to style homes for themselves with mud, straw, or stone, and masonry become born.
The Ancients closely relied on the stonemason to build the most magnificent and durable monuments to their civilizations. The Egyptians constructed their pyramids, the civilizations of Central America had their step pyramids, the Persians their palaces, the Greeks their temples, and the Romans their public works and wonders (See Roman Architecture). Among the well-known ancient stonemasons is Sophroniscus, the daddy of Socrates, who was a stone-cutter.
Castle constructing become a whole enterprise for the medieval stonemasons. When the Western Roman Empire fell, building in dressed stone reduced in a whole lot of Western Europe, and there was a ensuing boom in timber-based construction. Stone paintings experienced a resurgence inside the 9th and 10th centuries in Europe, and by way of the 12th century non secular fervour resulted in the creation of heaps of mind-blowing church buildings and cathedrals in stone throughout Western Europe.
Slipform stonemasonry is a method for making stone partitions with the aid of formwork to comprise the rocks and mortar at the same time as retaining the partitions directly. Short paperwork, up to two feet tall, are placed on both sides of the wall to function a guide for the stone paintings. Stones are located inside the paperwork with the good faces against the shape work. Concrete is poured at the back of the rocks. Rebar is added for power, to make a wall this is approximately half of reinforced concrete and half of stonework. The wall can be confronted with stone on one facet or each sides.[2]
Training
Traditionally medieval stonemasons served a seven-year apprenticeship. A comparable machine still operates nowadays.
A present day apprenticeship lasts 3 years. This combines on-site studying through non-public revel in, the revel in of the tradesmen and college work in which apprentices are given an normal enjoy of the constructing, hewing and concept work involved in masonry. In a few areas schools offer courses which teach not most effective the guide talents but also related fields such as drafting and blueprint reading or creation conservation. Electronic Stonemasonry training assets beautify traditional transport strategies.[3] Hands-on workshops are an excellent way to study stonemasonry additionally. Those wishing to become stonemasons should have little hassle working at heights, possess affordable hand-eye co-ordination, be fairly physically healthy, and have fundamental mathematical capacity. Most of this stuff can be developed even as studying.
Tools

customer relationship management

earning Objective[ edit ]

Define business marketing

Key Points[ edit ]

Business marketing is often directed to individuals within an organization, who act on behalf of the needs of the organization.
Business-to-business marketing involves any products or services a company purchases to resell, use as components in their own products or services, or to support their daily operations.
Any given business-to-business transaction can involve years of complex marketing efforts, including online and offline promotions.

Terms[ edit ]

A widely implemented model for managing a company’s interactions with customers, clients, and sales prospects. It involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize business processes—principally sales activities, but also those for marketing, customer service, and technical support. Also known by the acronym “CRM. ”

trade show

An exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products and services, study activities of rivals and examine recent market trends and opportunities.

white paper

A factual write-up of something, specifically devoid of the appearance of marketing.

Ecstasy Effects

People who live in a ‘deprived’ state, where the risk factors are high and the protective factors low, have a higher risk of using drugs. In terms of family, the important factor is how happy and stable your family life is, rather than whether you have two parents or not.
For a purpose

Some people use drugs to lose weight or to help them concentrate. Others may self-diagnose problems and use drugs to self-medicate.
Drug addiction, also called substance use disorder, is a dependence on a legal or illegal drug or medication. Keep in mind that alcohol and nicotine are legal substances, but are also considered drugs.

When you’re addicted, you’re not able to control your drug use and you may continue using the drug despite the harm it causes. Drug addiction can cause an intense craving for the drug. You may want to quit, but most people find they can’t do it on their own.

Drug addiction can cause serious, long-term consequences, including problems with physical and mental health, relationships, employment, and the law.

You may need help from your doctor, family, friends, support groups or an organized treatment program to overcome your drug addiction and stay drug-free
There are many signs, both physical and behavioral, that indicate drug use. Each drug has its own unique manifestations, but there are some general indications that a person is using drugs:

Sudden change in behavior
Mood swings; irritable and grumpy and then suddenly happy and bright
Withdrawal from family members
Careless about personal grooming
Loss of interest in hobbies, sports and other favorite activities
Changed sleeping pattern; up at night and sleeping during the day
Red or glassy eyes
Sniffly or runny nose

The following are effects related to frequently used drugs and also links to pages on the signs and symptoms of specific drug use:
Methamphetamine Effects

“Wired”–sleeplessness for days and weeks at a time, total loss of appetite, extreme weight loss, dilated pupils, excited, talkative, deluded sense of power, paranoia, depression, loss of control, nervousness, unusual sweating, shaking, anxiety, hallucinations, aggression, violence, dizziness, mood changes, blurred vision, mental confusion, agitation.

Meth Addiction Info
Signs and Symptoms of Meth Use
Symptoms of Ice Use

Changes in mental and physical stimulation, altered perception of sound, light, touch. Stimulation of physical energy with related decrease in appetite and increase in body temperature. Increase in emotional response and sensual reactions. Teeth clenching, muscle cramping, nausea, chills and sweating. Body may overheat which can lead to fatalities.

This is a major factor, as many people take recreational drugs for the ‘buzz’ or ‘thrill

It may be that your genetic or psychological characteristics mean you are more likely to take drugs.
Experimentation

Some people try drugs for the first time as an experiment, because they are curious or because friends are doing it. They want to try it to see how it affects them and talk about their experiences with their friends afterwards.
Gender and age

The age you are when you first try drugs can influence how you will go on to use them. For example, the younger you are when you start drinking alcohol, the more likely you are to try hard drugs later on.

Young men are more likely to experiment with drugs than women. However, heavy drug use can cause more damage to young women.
Hedonism (the ‘buzz’)

This is a major factor, as many people take recreational drugs for the ‘buzz’ or ‘thrill’. They make a deliberate choice to pursue this ‘high’.
Peer group

There are two schools of thought on the influence of your friends on your drug use. One is that the group can pressure you into taking drugs. Another is that people may choose to hang out with people who are into the same things as they are.
Availability

The easier it is to get drugs, the more likely you are to use them. This will also influence the type of drugs you use.
Family, social and environmental factors

Recognizing drug abuse in family members

Sometimes it’s difficult to distinguish normal teenage moodiness or angst from signs of drug use. Possible indications that your teenager or other family member is using drugs include:

Problems at school or work — frequently missing school or work, a sudden disinterest in school activities or work, or a drop in grades or work performance
Physical health issues — lack of energy and motivation
Neglected appearance — lack of interest in clothing, grooming or looks
Changes in behavior — exaggerated efforts to bar family members from entering his or her room or being secretive about where he or she goes with friends; or drastic changes in behavior and in relationships with family and friends
Spending money — sudden requests for money without a reasonable explanation; or your discovery that money is missing or has been stolen or that items have disappeared from your home, indicating maybe they’re being sold to support drug use

Recognizing signs of drug use or intoxication

Signs and symptoms of drug use or intoxication may vary, depending on the type of drug. Below you’ll find several examples.
Marijuana, hashish and other cannabis-containing substances

People use cannabis by smoking, eating, or inhaling a vaporized form of the drug. Cannabis often precedes or is used along with other substances, such as alcohol or other illegal drugs, and is often the first drug tried.

Drug addiction symptoms or behaviors include, among others:

Most drug addictions start with experimental use of a drug in social situations. For some people, the drug use becomes more frequent. The risk of addiction and how fast you become dependent varies by drug. Some drugs have a higher risk and cause dependency more quickly than others.

As time passes, you may need larger doses of the drug to get high. Soon you may need the drug just to feel good. As your drug use increases, you may find that it’s increasingly difficult to go without the drug. Attempts to stop drug use may cause intense cravings and make you feel physically ill (withdrawal symptoms).

Feeling that you have to use the drug regularly — this can be daily or even several times a day
Having intense urges for the drug
Over time, needing more of the drug to get the same effect
Making certain that you maintain a supply of the drug
Spending money on the drug, even though you can’t afford it
Not meeting obligations and work responsibilities, or cutting back on social or recreational activities because of drug use
Doing things to get the drug that you normally wouldn’t do, such as stealing
Driving or doing other risky activities when you’re under the influence of the drug
Focusing more and more time and energy on getting and using the drug
Failing in your attempts to stop using the drug
Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when you attempt to stop taking the drug